Rip-off (Abzocke), (to have a) lie-in (ausschlafen), mix-up (Verwechslung= confusion), cover-up, (Vertuschung), pile-up (Auffahrunfall), handout (Informationsblatt), crackdown (Durchgreifen), cutback (Kürzung), outset (Anfang), outgoings (Ausgaben)!!!! Titbitonians, welcome to last deep dive for phrasal verbs and a quick teaser for you to begin with. What do the 10 words have in common?
They are all nouns made from phrasal verbs! What other commonalities do we see in the list? Some have hyphens, and some don’t! So how do we know whether we need a hyphen or not?
It is a question I’ve always asked myself too, so I’m happy to tell you that there are a few rules when it comes to forming nouns from phrasal verbs. Thanx once again to ‘English Phrasal Verbs in Use’ * (Intermediate) book. *affiliate link.
Nouns coming from phrasal verbs with the adverbials –in/-up need a hyphen, whereas ones with – out/-over don’t. Easy, eh?! Unfortunately, I didn’t find anything about the other adverbials.
Next up, the plural ‘s’ goes on the adverbials like in:
“High school dropouts have a hard time finding work”. Or “There have been several break-ins in the area recently”.
When it comes to pronunciation, we stress the verb part, listen for yourself @ https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
Does anything strike you about our last two nouns ‘outset’ & ‘outgoings’? They are typing errors! Of course not, would I make such errors? Blatant advert coming up – this post has been checked by Grammarly (try it for free, if you decide to buy – think about Teatime Titbits!!! Thanx)
Here’s the deal, in both nouns the adverbials comes first and NOT the verb. So ‘outset’ comes from ‘to set out’ (meaning – to begin) & ‘outgoings’ in the sense of money ‘going out’, or rather spent. BTW we stress the adverbials part (out) when pronouncing these nouns.
Let’s wrap this post up with a rhyming wrap-up – the grammar deep-dive is nice, but use a dictionary to be on the safe side!!!
to have in common (gemeinsam haben), commonalities (Gemeinsamkeiten), hyphen (Bindesstrich), high school dropouts (Schulabbrecher), break-in (Einbruch), pronunciation (Aussprache), to stress (betonen), to strike sb (hier: jdm in den Sinn kommen), typing error (Tippfehler), blatant (offensichtlich), Here’s the deal (hier: folgendes), or rather (oder genauer gesagt), to wrap sth up (etw abschließen), wrap-up (kurzzusammenfassung), to be on the safe side (ganz sicher gehen).
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